We have started a series of posts evaluating the detailed previous years’ WBCS Anthropology question papers. We will be publishing all previous years’ WBCS Anthropology optional question papers chapter by chapter.

We have assembled these chapter-by-chapter questions following the WBCS mains previous exam questions from 2001 through the most recent exam of 2021.


Below is the detailed syllabus of Chapter 2 Anthropology optional Paper-I (WBCS mains)

2. Human evolution and Hominization

2.1 Theories of organic evolution. Human evolution and emergence of Man :
(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution,
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian, and Post-Darwinian),
(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary

2.2 Neutral theory of molecular evolution

2.3 Concept of evolutionary biology: Skeletal changes, (skull, vertebral column, pelvic girdle, hind

2.4 Characteristics of primates, Primate classification (general), Features and distribution of World Monkey, Old World Monkey, Asian and African

2.5 Theories of human origin.

2.6 Geological time scale with particular reference to the Pleistocene epoch.
Distribution, characteristics, and phylogenetic  (Parapithecus Dryopithecus, Sivapithecus Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis Homo erectus (Java Man, Peking Man) Archaic Homo sapiens Neanderthal Man – La-Chapelle-Aux-Saints, Tabun Man Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens – Cromagnon, Grimaldi, Chancelade)

All the previous years’ questions of WBCS mains Anthropology optional Chapter 2 of Paper-I:

2.1 Theories Of Organic Evolution. Human Evolution And Emergence Of Man

Q1. Give An Account Of Darwinian Theory Of Organic Evolution.

Discuss The evolutionary Biology With Reference To The Skull In The Context Of Human  Evolution.

Briefly Enumerate The Neutral Theory Of Evolution. [2019,2017] 10+10+10=30

Q2. (A) What Are The Differences Between Out Of Africa And Multiregional Theories Of  Human Origin?

Discuss Briefly With Evidences Multiregional Continuity Model Of Human Origin.

(B) Write An Essay On Synthetic Theory Of Evolution. [2016,2020] (5+15)=10=30 

Q3. Define Evolution. [2016] 5

Q4. Cranial Capacity. [2004] 10 

Q5. Describe The Important Biological Changes That Brought About Evolution Of Man.  [2003] 20

 Q6. What Are The Biological Features That Enabled Man To Produce Tool?  Correlate The Development Of Biology With The Advancement Of Culture.   [2002] 20

Q7.Write an essay on the synthetic theory of human evolution. [2021] 10




2.2 Neutral Theory Of Molecular Evolution

{no questions have been asked on this topic so far}

2.3 Concept Of Evolutionary Biology: Skeletal Changes, (Skull, Vertebral Column, Pelvic Girdle, Hind Limb)

Q1. Describe The Changes that Happened In the Human Skeleton Due To the Assumption Of Erect  Posture And Bipedal Locomotion With Special Emphasis On the Skull, Vertebral Column, And  Pelvis. [2015] 30

Q2. Discuss The Concept Of Evolutionary Biology With Special Reference To Skull Or Vertebral Column. [2013] 16 

Q3. With The Assumption Of Erect Posture And Bipedalism, Many Anatomical Changes Took Place In The Ancestor Of Man. Indicate Only The Major Changes That Occurred In The  Vertebral Column, Pelvis, Lower Limbs, And Feet.

 [2004] 20

Q4. What Do You Mean By the “Hominization “ Process?

What Evolutionary Changes Occured In Human “Pelvic Girdle And Hind Limbs” In The  Process Evolution? [2006] 20

2.4 Characteristics Of Primates, Primate Classification (General), Features And Distribution Of New World Monkey, Old World Monkey, Asian, And African Apes.

Q1. Define Primates.

Give The General Classification Of Primates With Suitable Examples.

Give An Account Of The Distributions And Salient And Distinguishing Features Of New  World Monkey And Old World Monkey.

State The Distribution Of Apes And Discuss The Distinguishing Features Of Asian And African  Ape.  [2017] 4+6+10+10 

Q2. Compare The Distribution Anatomical Features And Phylogenetic Position Of The  Classical And Progressive Neanderthal Population With Suitable Examples.  [2015] 30 

Q3. Classify The Order Primate Upto Family Level. Give At Least Three Distinguishing  Features For Each Family Along With Three Living Examples And Their Geographical  Distributions. [2014] 32

Q4. Give A Comparison Between Java Man And The Cro Magnon. [2013] 16 

Q5. Discuss The Differences Between Asian Apes And African Apes. Give An Example To  Each One Of Them.  [2013] 16 

Q6. Compare The Physical Features Of ‘Old World” And “New World” Monkeys. Mention  Their Distribution.[2012] 20 

Q7. Enumerate Some Characteristics Of Primates That Distinguish Them From Other  Members Of The Mammalian Group.  [2008] 20 

Q8. Anthropoid Apes. [2002] 20 

Q9. Give A Brief Account Of Physical Characteristics Of The Primates, Justify The Inclusion  Of Man In That Group.  [2001] 20 

2.5 Theories Of Human Origin.

Q1. Point Out The Characteristics Biological Features Of HumanKind. Write About The Consequences Of Bipedalism In Man. [2010] 20 

Q2. Give A Brief Account Of Malthusian Theory Of Population. Is It Acceptable? Discuss.  [2004] 10

Q3. Recent Theories Of Human Origin.  [2002] 10

Q4. Theories Of Human Origin.  [2017] 10 


2.6 Geological Time Scale With Special Reference To Pleistocene Epoch.

Q1. Describe The Stratigraphic Evidences based on Which Pleistocene Environment  Is Reconstructed In The Temperate Regions.  [2002] 20

Q2. Pleistocene Epoch. [2014] 18 

Q3. Discuss the importance Pleistocene epoch in Human Evolution.

Give an account of the distribution and salient features of Home erectus fossil remains.

Enumerate the different theories of human origin. [2021] 10+10+10

2.7 Distribution, Characteristics, And Phylogenetic Status

Q1. Write Down Your Ideas About Archaic Homo Sapiens. Describe One Of The Fossil Specimens Of This Category With Its Characteristics And Phylogenetic Status.  [2014] 8+16+8 

Q2. Name The Polymorphic Variations Of Australopithecus.

Mention Their Distribution.

Write The Morphological Features Of An Australopithecus Species.

Discuss The Phylogenetic Status Of Australopithecus.  [2013] 16 

Q3. Write Briefly On

(A) Neanderthal

(B) Cro-Magnon      [2011] 10+10 

Q4. State Briefly The Characteristics Of Mousterian Culture.

Give A Brief Account Of Physical Features And Phylogenies Position Of The Builders Of  Mousterian Culture.  [2009] 20 

Q5. Define Homo Erectus.

Give An Account Of The Distribution And Salient Features Of Homo Erectus Fossil Remains. Enumerate Briefly The Biological And Cultural Adaptations Of Homo Erectus.  [2007] 20 

Q6. Enumerate “Neanderthal Problem” In Relation To Biological Evolution Of Man.

[2012] 20  

Q7.Locate The Distribution Of Fossil Findings Of Australopithecus And Mention Its Different Polymorphic Species.

Discuss Its Phylogenetic Status In Hominid Origin. [2005] 20 

Q8. Australopithecine  [2001] 10 

Q9. Why Do You Think The Spatio-Temporal Expansion Of Homo Erectus Was More Than  The Australopithecus?  [2018] 10+10+10 

Q10. Archaic Homo Sapiens.  [2018] 10 

Q11. Java Man.  [2010] 10 

Q12. Homo Erectus Pekinensis.  [2009] 10 


That’s all questions that have been asked in this chapter from 2001 to 2021.  Keep visiting us regularly for further updates.

We have already published all the previous years’ questions from Chapter I. You can check that post by clicking here.

You can check the detailed analysis of the syllabus of the WBCS Anthropology optional paper by clicking here.

Thank You!

Shami Ibrahim

Shami Ibrahim is currently working in Central Bureau of Narcotics. He joined Indian Navy in Jan 2021. Medical board out due to injury in training. Cleared UPSC CDS in 2022. Loves playing chess ♟️

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